**DIS/Conveyor-Belt**

- User-friendly data input using Excel spreadsheets.
- Supports multiple belts.
- Driver, driven, tensioner and idler rollers can be easily configured.
- Supports flat, toughed and pipe conveyor belts.
- Very long belts (> 1 Km) can be modeled efficiently.
- Supports curved belts (horizontal and vertical curves).
- Fully-integrated DEM (Discrete element model) for modeling bulk materials.
- Arbitrary particle geometry and sizes. Particles geometry can be represented using: polygonal surfaces, superquadrics or glued-spheres.
- Eulerian search grid for fast contact search and detection.
- Inter-particle normal contact force can be specified by the user and can include attractive and repulsive forces.
- Coulomb or EHD friction models can be used as the inter-particle tangential contact force.
- Arbitrary pulley width profile including grooved and crowned pulleys.
- Driver pulley angular velocity can be specified using tabular data, splines, and/or trigonometric/exponential functions.
- Driven pulley torque can be specified as a function of time or angular velocity.
- Multiple driver pulleys.
- Belts can be modeled using:
- Thick spatial beam elements (support bending in two directions and torsion).
- Thin shell elements with thin beam elements across the length and width of the belt for modeling reinforcements.
- Brick elements with thin beam elements across the length and width of the belt for modeling reinforcements.
- Model fidelity and level-of-detail can be easily controlled to achieve the best compromise between accuracy and computational speed.
- Arbitrary belt cross-sections can be modeled using the belt brick element model.
- Rotational and linear tensioners with user-specified spring, damping and friction.
- Isolator clutches with user-specified spring, damping and friction.
- DIS/Belt can be used in the following types of simulations:
- Transient dynamic response of the belt-drive due to:
- Belt acceleration and deceleration.
- Belt startup and stoppage.
- Steady-State belt operation.
- Natural frequency response.
- Pulleys/sprockets rotational natural frequencies.
- Belt-span tension & transverse deflection natural frequencies.
- Prediction of belt noise.
- Prediction of maximum stable belt speed.
- Prediction of the time-history of response quantities of interest, including:
- Rollers:
- Rotational angular velocity..
- Hub forces.
- Belt-spans:
- Tension.
- Transverse deflection.
- Belt-Pulley contact:
- Normal and tangential forces.
- Percent slip.
- Tensioner motion and load (force or moment).
- FFT analysis can be performed for any response time-history for determining frequency content.
- Integrated belt fatigue life module (under-development).
- Integrated belt wear life module (under-development).
**Explicit-time integration solver**. A predictor-corrector algorithm is used that is based on the trapezoidal integration rule. The solver can maintain the system total energy and momentum with negligible drift over very long simulation times.- Equation of motion are formulated using a total Lagrangian - total displacement formulation.
**Rigid multibody dynamics**.- Total rotation matrix relative to the inertial frame to measure the rotation of the rigid bodies. The rotational equations of motion are written in the body frame and solved for the vector of incremental rotation angles.
**Joint models**. A penalty formulation is used to model joints including: spherical, revolute, cylindrical, and prismatic joints.**Contact model**.- A penalty formulation is used to model normal contact. A nonlinear penalty normal contact force can be used that is a nonlinear function of penetration and penetration rate. The formulation can model various types of contacts including Hertzian contact.
- Contact surfaces can be general polygonal surfaces; superquadric surfaces or analytical surfaces (such as elliptical cylinder and torus).
- Fast hierarchical bounding boxes contact point search for contact search and detection for polygonal surfaces.
**Friction**.- Coulomb friction is approximated using an asperity-based model.
- Elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) friction/lubircation model.
**Solid finite elements**.- Truss and spring elements.
- Torsional spring element.
- Thin beam element based on the torsional-spring formulation.
- Spatial thick beam element based on the lumped parameters formulation.
- Triangular and rectangular thin shell elements based on the torsional-spring formulation.
- Brick (hexahedral) element based on the natural deformation modes formulation.
- Tetrahedral and prismatic elements based on the natural deformation modes formulation.

All elements support:

- Large rotations.
- Large deformations.
- Non-linear stress-strain and stress-rate of strain constitutive materials models for modeling non-linear elastic and visco-elastic materials.
- Material failure.
**Controls**.- PID controllers.
- Control laws can be scripted using built-in scripting languages.
**Scripting**.- JAVA script.
- Python script
**Support for parallel processing using CPUs and GPUs**.**Integrated graphical pre-processor and post-processor.**- Object-oriented architecture.
- Hierarchical tree editor.
- Near photo-realistic visualization.
- Real-time virtual-reality visualization.
**Post-processor**- Display an animation of the belt-drive motion. The animation can be paused, speed-up or slowed-down or played in reverse.
- Capture the animation to an AVI movie.